Little known by the ancients - the Trans-Saharan trade only beginning towards -800 with the camel - Black Africa in western Chad slowly passed from Neolithic to Iron Age (Nok and Ife in Nigeria, Sao in Chad, Sine-Saloum in Senegal and Tondidaro in Mali). One is better informed by archeology and Arab sources about the empires which have succeeded one another during centuries, rich of cereals, shea, cattle, gold and later slaves. The empire of Ghana develops towards the 9th century, and is destroyed by the Almoravids in 1077. Its territory controlled by the kingdom of Sosso, passes in 1240 under the domination of the empire of Mali that stretches until the Western Sudan, to end in the 15th century, Songhai's empire grows at its costs at the end of the 15th century, and the kingdom of Segou give him the coup de grace, around 1670. Around Chad succeeds or cohabits different kingdoms: Baguini, Ouaddai, Kanem-Bornou as well as the kingdoms of the savanna, mossi in particular. The Islam that spreads, will be at the origin of theocratic kingdoms like those of the Senegal's valley and in Fouta-Djalon. The flooding by the Peuls in the 19th century leads to massive conversions (Hausa country, Macina). On the Gulf of Benin side we see animistic kingdoms, small and centralized, such as Ife, Oyo, Benin, Achantis and Dahomey characterized by a strong urban development. To the east of Libya are the Nubian and Ethiopian kingdoms, this last one will survive at the end of the 19th century with an Abyssinian dynasty. Further south migrate the Bantu and emerges the splendor of Zimbabwe, with the Monomotapa empire, and the certainty of an ancient settlement in South Africa. On the east coast a series of sultanates are founded by the Arabs. Madagascar is populated by Indonesians of the 13-17th century, there are two sakalavas on the east coast, and the unity of the kingdom of Imérina is realized in the 18-19th century. Excepted the regions of trans-Saharan trade, Africa has lived isolated for centuries, shaken by migrations wars. The arrival of the Portuguese puts in place trading points, leading to the enrichment of the coastal states and the impoverishment of the old empires. The other European nations will follow. From the 7th to the 20th century, there will be 14 million people deported, to the Arab world by the Sahara, then to America by the Europeans. It is not until the 19th century, that the trafficking is declared illegal, and outside of an illegal trade which continues, the chiefs of the coastal nations will gradually replace the human commodities with tropical products, always exchanged by a system of barter (palm oil against Powder, guns, fabrics). Late 19 and early 20th it's the sharing of Africa by the European nations and the beginning of the colonial area. Decolonization, by becoming aware of the African identity, will gradually take place during the 20th century, peacefully or with clashes.
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