I've always wondered why so many translations of my poem were written in Latin, Arabic, Cyrillic, alphabet etc., and did not have a proper alphabet, because I expected to see them written much more often with Pretty glyphs or signs. I was told that there was a close link between writing and state. In ancient times -3500, writing appears only with the appearance of the state, and when it happens that the state disappears, it disappears with it. It was first used to record accounts and texts of laws, that mean that only countries which had a state wrote, for the others the language was only orality. And if they have began to write their language, it was only under the effect of the colonizing peoples, who have transmitted to them their structures and their alphabets, which were mostly Latin, Cyrillic or Arabic! Some nations then created their own writing, to get away from that of their colonizer, it is for example the case of cherokee, tshiluba and of the four mande languages. I would like that many others invent alphabets, glyphs, scripts, all more magnificent than the others, but nothing is less certain, when actually everything becomes uniform! Every year languages that make the wealth of humanity, disappear! Will my little poem become a tiny Rosetta stone? In any case, I am very happy to see it translated into dead languages, that some researchers are trying to revive. One can find pre-writings as early as -50,000, it is a desire for communication engraved on stones or bones. One also report the Scythian message to Darios consisting of 5 arrows, a mouse, a frog and a bird, of suggested shapes, to escape the arrows. We can also note the Incas notation system by nodes on ropes. But the first writing is the Sumerians cuneiform writing traced in the clay with a reed (-3500) to hold accounts in mesopotamia. At first it uses ideograms which later take on a phonetic meaning. Unlike the hieroglyphs, this writing of bass Mesopotamia does not cease to evolve, and its signs more and more schematized take their cuneiform aspect. Starting at -2,300 beside the Sumerian, monosyllabic language, the scribe writes a Semitic language the Akkadian which can not be transcribed properly by means of phonetic signs, the resulting is a complicated signs system. During 1,500 years the cuneiform is adopted by eastern peoples who are seduced by the cultural treasure of the texts of Lower Mesopotamia. These peoples (Eblaites, the Semites of low mesopotamia (Akkadian)), adapt the cuneiform to their own phonetics by increasing the number of phonetic signs. This mixed culture associating Akkadian and Sumerian will gain the Assyria and will remain in Mesopotamia until the beginning of our era. Susans, Elamites and Hourrites will adopt this writing. Its peak will be in the 2nd millennium in Anatolia to transcribe the Assyrian (Hittites). In -1300 the communication between the kingdoms, is in Akkadian, stained of Canaanite, and written in cuneiform. The Elamites -600-400 invent a syllabary for the Persian inscriptions of the Achaemenid kings. In front of the progress of the Arameans language and alphabet, the Akkadian becomes a dead language. At the fall of Babylon the cuneiform will hardly be used. The alphabetical writing is constituted towards -1800-1900 in the Syro-Palestinian region, for the purpose of efficiency, borrowing its signs from hieroglyphics and cuneiform. It is towards -1100 that appears a 22 letters alphabet, the Phoenician alphabet which is the direct ancestor of all Western alphabets. The Phoenicians spread their writing in the Mediterranean basin towards -800, an alphabet that will differentiate itself to adapt to the various languages. Thus, from the first millennium, appear the South Arabic alphabet, the paleo-Hebrew alphabet. The Aramaic alphabet, which descends from the Phoenician system, give birth to the square-Hebrew and to the Nabataean, which will become the Arabic script, to the Palmyrenian and Syriac alphabets, which are the basis of the writing systems of Iran and Central Asia (pahlavi, avestic, sogdian, ouigour, mongolian, armenian, georgian). It is probable that the Aramaic alphabet was the model of the Brahmi of India. Derived from the Phoenician, the Greek alphabet adapted to note the vowels, it at the origin of Coptic, Gothic and Glagolitic, from which Cyrillic proceeds. The Latin alphabet through the Etruscans comes from the Greek.
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