The languages of India are divided into four great families: the Indo-Aryan, the Dravidian, the Sino-Tibetan and the Austro-Asiatic. The Mughal period favored the accession to the rank of literary languages certain idioms and the formation of a great common language, the Hindustani or Hindi. From the 13th century, the interior of the Indo-Aryan geographical area develope an important oral and written literature. Bengali, maithili, avadhi, braj, rajasthani, marathi, gain the rank of literary languages. Hindi expresses a literature of Persian inspiration which knows its apogee in the 18th century. In the 19th century, the contact with the English is first effected through Bengali, Sanskrit and Hindustani. At that time, the rivalries between the Hindu and Muslim communities are exacerbated: language and writing become a symbol. From 1850 prose develops, designated by the term "Hindi", supported by Hindu writers to nascent nationalism. In 1950 Hindi is designated as the official common language but the other languages (Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannara, Kasmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Panjabi, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu) are respected, by retaining their regional status, sindhi will later be added to these official languages. The regional languages less subject to the planners decisions, develop harmoniously. The oldest known monuments of Indian literature are in Sanskrit, the language of sacred and erudition. Among the modern languages with a rich literature we will note Tamil, Bengali, Hindi, Marathi, Malayalam, Punjabi, Gujurati, Telugu, and Kannara. To these are added the expressions in Assamese, oriya, kasmiri and sindhi.
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