Concerning the history of the countries of the former Soviet Union in Central Asia, it has been very eventful since antiquity. Scythians and Sarmatists pushed by the Indo-Europeans, populate the Tarim and the Altai. Then in the Christian era prevails an inverse movement, from east to west, which leads the Huns and Avars to Hungary, and the Khazars on the banks of the Caspian. For centuries the Turkish or Mongolian nomadic hordes cross one after the other, the passes of Tarbagatai and Alataou, abandoning the eastern steppe for the more fertile western steppes. Under the Samanids flourishs in Transoxiana and Kharezm the brilliant Iranian civilization (Samarkand). The area where the Uyghurs settle, become turquified from the 9th century. With the overthrow of the Samanids, the rampart of the Iranian world against the pressure of the steppes collapses. The process of ethnic and linguistic turquization is accelerating. There is nothing left in the region but a people of Iranian language: the Tajiks. In the 13th century, the Mongol conquest of the Gengiskhanides includes all this part of the world in a vast empire. During the partition of the Mongol Empire, the north of Kharezm and the Syr-Daria are united to the Golden Horde, while the Khiva and the rest of Central Asia return to the Djaghataides. The Turkish empire extends the Mongolian tradition: a khan reigns officially on the Transoxian. Thus a political and cultural symbiosis takes place between the local Turkish populations and the Mongol conquerors. This is illustrated by the establishment of the Chaybanides - to whom the Uzbeks owe their fortune - in the steppes of the actual Kazakhstan, then in Transoxiana and Kharezm. At the end of the 17th century, the Western Mongols (Oirats, Kalmuk, Eleuthes) dominate the Dzungar Empire and establish their protectorate over Kashgaria. In the struggles with the Kalmuks, the Kazakhs appeal to Russians and Chinese who conquer Kashgaria. The Russians continue their expansion, snatching the Ili, Tashkent and Samarkand from the Chinese. The occupation of the Turkmen country will be complet in 1885. After the Russian revolution, Soviet republics are established, then reorganized in 1925 on ethnic bases, they are: the republics of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan .
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