Concerning the history of the East: The East knows the beginning of agriculture and breedind, and one finds the oldest villages (-8000). The beginning of writing in cities makes possible to distinguish regional cultures whose emergence is staggered in time: cultures Summerian, Elamite and Egyptian (second half of the 4th millennium, Iranian, Syromesopotamian and Anatolian (3rd millennium), illustrated by The Pyramids of Egypt, and the Royal Tombs of Our. Towards -2000 it is the decline of the states and the era of migrations, the amorrites go from the Nile to the Persian Gulf. The Egyptian empire and Babylon constitute the apogee of the middle bronze. In the period of the recent bronze until -1300, despite the rivalries (Egypt, Babylon, Mitanni, Assyria, Hittites) the exchanges are developing. Egyptian culture in spite of its aesthetic superiority spreads only in a part of the Syrian corridor. While the hieroglyphs are only used by the Egyptians, the cuneiform writing, which transcribes Sumerian and Akkadian of lower Mesopotamia, is teached in the schools of scribes of all kingdoms: the Akkadian is the language of diplomacy and his knowledge opens the access to the incomparable treasure of the Sumero-Akkadian divination, of the magic and literature. When the great states decline, the invaders (peoples of the sea, Arameans) carry them terrible blows: the Hittites kingdom disappears. Only the Phoenicians cities continue their growth. In the first millennium, one after the other, the great states try to dominate the whole of the East, and become increasingly vast empires: Assyrian, Nebabylonian, Achaemenian Persian. The sovereigns multiplied the vast edifices, the Assyrian kings constitute a collections of tablets. But the pillages carry out by the conquerors ruined the regional cultures of West Asia. The Sumero-Akkadian culture is in decline: the scribes are content to recopy the ancient texts, the Aramaic script written in alphabetical signs replaces the Akkadian, linked to the cuneiform writing. Under the Achaemenides, the temples of Babylonia cease to be repaired, the worship begins to fall into disuse. Egyptian culture is also affected by sclerosis. Only the people of the Syrian corridor keep a vitality: the Phoenicians, creators of the alphabet, the Israelites who inaugurated the monolatry and then in -700 after Akhenaton the monotheism. The sluggish atony of almost the whole of the East in a vast empire explains the rapidity of the conquest of Alexander (-330) which replaces the Persian king and diffuses the Hellenistic culture, liberating the indigenous reactions that remain attached to Their traditions. This will provoke under his successors, completed by Rome, the destruction of this new empire. Under Rome with Christendom the Semitic (Syriac, Chaldean, and Egyptian (Coptic)) dialects are revered. The abandonment of cuneiform writing and hieroglyphics allows only, in the texts of the great oriental cultures, to see survive what had been assimilated in the Hellenistic period. And until Champollion there will remain of the East, that had illuminated the old world, only the reflections preserved by the Bible.
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