Kumyk love poem
Сени гульгевь гюзгюда
Строчкаларда мени яхши нефесим.
Телесь! О ёх-олар! Алерь
Ахирин чувствада признание.
→ French poem ←
Kumyk love poem (alternative : Kumyk, Kumık, Kumıh, Kumuh, Gumık, Gumuh, Khaidak, Khaitag, Podgorniy, Kumuk, Qumuqlar, Kumuklar, Khasavyurt, Terek, Khasav-Yurt, Buinak, Kumyki, Buinaksk, Autonym : Къумукъ (Qumuq)). A translation in a central Dagestan language!
This Turkish language is also spoken in Chechnya, Ingushetia and Ossetia, it is the official language in the Republic of Dagestan. There are 500,000 Kumyks able to speak this language of the western kipchak group. To write it, the Cyrillic script succeeded the Latin script, which itself had succeeded the Arabic script. Many languages of this region have seen their way of being written vary with regard to the influences they were subjected to.
The Koumyk language is to be compared to that of the Cuman - Kipchaks, it is a Turkish language of Kipchak type, from the north Caucasus ... from the north-east, to the Caspian.
If the Kumyks have an ancient literary tradition, it is first of all, in Turkish that their authors wrote.
This popular and old literature consisted of epics, reminiscent of the Karachay-Balkar Narts. The best known are Manqulpu, Qart-Qožaq ve Maqsumin, Abdulla and Aygazi.
The first documents, were written by Christian missionaries (1810), but they are in a mixed language. Also, we consider the beginning of the twentieth century, with the texts of Ausupyan Akayev, as the beginning of the literary Kumyki language, even if Yïrčï Kazak, a troubadour, had launched the foundations. Initially it is a modified Arabic script, which is used, then Cyrillic, in 1928.
If we agree that Kumyk is a Kipchak language, with Oghuz and Chaghatay influences, it can be divided into three, or five dialects: the northern one (Khasavyurt) spoken around Makhachkala, the central one (Buynaksk) spoken around Buynaksk, and the southern one (Khaidak) spoken between Khaidak and Derbent. The other two, which could be considered as sub-dialects by some, are Podgorno and Terski. Although there are documents indicating that the Khasavyurt dialect is the basis of the literary language, there is no unanimity to know which dialect really served as the basis of the literary language ... anyway, the southern one, is the furthest from it.
The Kumyk language was influenced, in order, by the Caucasian, Arabic, Persian, and then Russian languages. The latter had the most recent and notable influence.
It is good to remember that Kumyk, was a very important language in Dagestan, and in all the North Caucasus. It was a prestigious language, which served as the lingua franca for the whole area ... so much so that it was for almost everyone the second or third language. We can even speak of the kumykization of certain groups of Noghais and Chechens from Dagestan in the twentieth century.
Today, Russian, and avar which has become the main language in Dagestan, tend to make it regress. Nevertheless it remains the second or third language of many Avars, Dargins, Laks, Chechens and Noghais.
The Kumyks, Turkish people, would be the descendants of indigenous nomads, Turkified by the Khazars who dominated the region of Dagestan for several centuries. The Kumyk civilization is often much older than that of other neighboring mountain groups.
The origin of the word "Kumyk" is not really known, but the Russians call them "Kumyki", possibly in reference to the Laks of Dagestan (Kazikumukh). They self-designate "Qumuq".
Originally the Kumyks were, Khazar groups settled in the north of the Caucasus. They resisted the Arab invasions of the sixth and seventh centuries, which in turn led to the Islamization of the ancestors of the Laks, Dargins, Avars and Chechens.
It was between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries with the arrival of Kipchak-speaking populations that, strictly speaking, the Kumyk ethnic group was formed. If their origin remains highly debated, it is certain that the Kumyks are at least from a melting pot, including the indigenous peoples of the Caucasus, the Khazars (often Christians, Jews etc.), and the Kipchaks.
Their traditions, which were based on a class society (let us quote the upper classes: Shamkhals and Kïrïmshamkhal, and lower: özden (the majority - farmers), raiat and kul (slaves)), have survived for a very long time! For disputes, the Sages gathered near the Yamansuv, to discuss between them. A system, which has been widely imitated around.
The Kumyks can be divided into three groups: center (the most numerous), north, and south (long considered ethnically different). Some also reside in Chechnya, because of the Soviets, who have operated population movements, that have largely changed the ethnic composition of northern Dagestan. Their number is estimated at 500,000.
After having resisted the Russians for a long time, little by little they fell under Russian administration (1859). The Soviet period, will fragment the Kumyk community, by imposing migrations towards Chechnya, and the arrival on their territory, of Laks, Avars, Dargins and Tabasarans.