Dargwa love poem
Дяхlимцlайзиб хlела жура
Бегl гlяхlси далайла гьигь.
Гьалакии! Бетихъур кьалли! Билшану рахли
Гергъиси дигайлизиб мукlурвакlни.
→ French poem ←
Love poem "The mirror" translated into Dargwa language (other names : Dargva, Urakha-Akhush, Akusha, Sirxin, Ughbug, Xajdak, Uslar, Tsudakhar, Dargi, Itsari, Chirag, Kaitak, Kubachintsy, Dargin, Akkhusha, Kaytak, Dargintsy, Uraxa-Axusha, Cudaxar, Khiurkilinskii, Dejbuk, Kajtak, Kubachi, Kubachin, Xarbuk, Urkarax, Muirin, Autonym : дарган мез (Dargan mez)) of Dagestan (Caucasus).
Dargwa is a language that has only been transcribed since 1938. in addition to Dagestan, Dargwa is also spoken in Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine, two places where there are speakers, for a total of 450,000.
Even if no many thing was written before the Soviet era, there are written traces in Dargwa, with the Arabic script, which date from the 15th century, and even from the 13th century.
Despite attempts during the Soviet era to undermine traditional customs in an attempt to integrate these populations, the Dargins, continue to place the family and the clan in the center of their society. Already, at time of their greatness with the Utsmiyat, the village, made up of extended endogamous families, and governed by an assembly and a council of elders, was the political unit.
During the Tsarist era, many local languages were wrote in Arabic, because it was believed that these local languages should be used only for oral, and that writing and reading was the prerogative of Arabic, which was also used for literacy. Throughout this region, Kumik was often used as a lingua franca.
If in 1900 Russian began to be used as a literary and communication language, Soviet leaders believed that it would be difficult to get it accepted by the masses. They therefore created in addition to Dargwa, ten other literary languages in Dagestan ... the objective being to create multiple, modern and educated nationalities. Rather than all Causasians (Dargwa, Lezgin, Avar etc.) consider themselves Caucasians, mountaineers or Muslims ... it would be easier to divide and rule. Conversely, the literary Dargwa by being taught in the Kaitag and Kubachi schools, made it possible to administer two too small groups, in a larger one.
The study of Russian, also essential in schools, the Latin script was replaced by a Cyrillic script to facilitate literacy in Russian. Gradually in the 1950s, once the Soviet goal to divide and rule, and spread Russian to unify, had been achieved, less and less effort was made to use Dargwa in education.
The fact remains that the development of literary Dargwa owes everything to the Soviet era, and that it played a key role in constituting the current ethnic identity of the Dargwas.
You & The Dargins
The Darguins (Dargwa, Darkkwa, Darga, Dargo, Dargan) are farmers and nomads living on livestock, they are often called Dargin because of the name given to them by the Russians (Darginski).
They were in fact made up of several groups that could speak languages considered distinct (eg Kaitag and Kubachi). Rather than an ethnic group, they considered themselves more, as members of a village, a clan, a culture: mountain dweller, and Caucasians.
The Kaitag, in the 14th century formed the Utsmiyat, a very important political entity in the history of the Dargwa people, since it extended, to almost the entire region, before being dissolved by the Russian government (1820).
I find this Nakho Dagestanian language very, very poetic! You, you are a breeder or a farmer? I believe you are both, on a very small scale, just for yourself. Will she read, a day, my poem? She has been a recluse for so long, and it is all her life, because no one yet, has been able to say to her the slightest "I love you"!