Kabardian love poem
уи сурэтыр мылъым телъщ
си усэ нахь даху шытщ
ау зыгъыпсынк1э- ток1ыжщ
си ф1ы узолъэгъу яужырей аращ
→ Poem the mirror ←
This Kabardian love poem (alternatives and dialects : Cherkess, Kabardino-Cherkess, Eastern Circassian, Kabard, Greater Kabardian, Kabardin, Malka, Highland Adyghe, Eastern Adyghe, Upper Adyghe, Beslenej, Kabardo-Cherkessian, Kabardo-Cherkess, Baksan, Upper Circassian, Lesser Kabardian, East Circassian, Kuban, Mozdok, Beslenei, Autonym : Къэбэрдей Адыгэбзэ (Qăbărdey Adəgăbză)), is translated into an Abkhazo-Adygian Caucasian language, mainly spoken in the Kabardino-Balkariya and Karachayevo-Cherkesiya republics in the Russian Federation, as well as in Turkey, Jordan, and Syria. Two peoples speak it: the Kabardians, and the Circassians, with sometimes some differences. The Kabardian belongs to the northwest branch of the Caucasian family.
The Abkhaz-Adyghian languages were once spoken all over the eastern Black Sea coast.
The Kabardian dialects are: Besleney (Beslenei in Republic Karachay-Cherkess - Great Kabardia), Kouban (Republic of Adyghea), Mozdok (North Ossetia). The most different dialect is Besleney. In a way, it's a transition between Eastern and Western Circassian ... despite all this, these dialects, are mutually intelligible. If there were attempts to write Kabardian with Arabic, Latin or Cyrillic alphabet, the literary language, written with an adapted Cyrillic alphabet, will ne be created before the beginning of the 20th century. Previously, Arabic was the language of literacy.
In the Kabardino-Balkariya Republic, Kabard has the status of official language, to the little ones, Lessons are taught in Kabard, and at the university there is a department dealing with the language. Some dailies are in Kabardian. Literature is not yet very developed, but we are starting to have collections, which bring together mythology and oral literature.
There are believed to be over 400,000 Kabard speakers in the Kabardino-Balkariya Republic, and in neighboring regions, all are bilingual with Russian.
Accounting for those from other countries is more difficult. In Turkey, for example, under Atatürk, a good number of Circassian idioms were attacked, but today these languages are beginning to reappear, on the internet and on television.
Kabardians & Bela
The Kabardians or Kabardin are Eastern Circassians. It was from the Middle Ages that we began to distinguish a Kabardian ethnic group, an ethnic group that dominated the entire northern Caucasus for centuries, and was able to establish relations with Moscow (15th century). Maria Temriukovna (Goshenay), the wife of Ivan the Terrible was a Kabard princess, and later, important Russian nobles and soldiers, will also be of Kabardian origin.
Unlike some of their neighbors, Kabard society has evolved from a clan structure to a feudal organization with serfs, nobles and princes.
The link with the Russians was so important, that this nobility, became Orthodox from the 16th century ... shortly after, Islam began to spread in Kabardia, but it was not until the 19th century that it solidifies ... Some groups have remained Orthodox (the Mozdok).
Despite the advent of religions, even today, Pagan customs and traditions largely continue to exist.
After the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the mid-19th century, a large numbers of Circassians fled to the Ottoman Empire. Today, the Kabardinians represent 55% of the population of the Kabardino-Balkariya Republic, and generally all are bilingual with Russian. We find many descendants of the Kabardin in Turkey ... many had emigrated to this country in the 19th century, after the war against the Russians.
Did the pretty Cherkess, Bela of Lermontov's novel, speak Kabardian? I encourage you to read this very beautiful novel: "A hero of our time". Kabardian is her native language, but the echo that mountains return to her, is always in French! She likes to smile at it, and search its meaning. Perhaps, she will be touched by this little Kabardian poem, that I send to her? It is in a language spoken by less than 500,000 speakers, including HER!