Mongolian love poem
Толинд туссан чиний минь дүр
Наддаа төгс уянгалаг яруу найраг
Гэвч, яараарай тэр замхархана
"Хайртай" гэх сүүлчийн үг минь!
→ Poem the mirror ←
Mongol woman & Mongolian
Pretty Mongol woman, this love poem (Хайрын шүлэг), is in your language the Mongolian (khalkha). The women of Genghis Khan epoch possessed mirrors, and from always, the most beautiful Mongolian poems was their images.
Mongolian (khalkha) is the language of 7 million people in China, Russia, and of course in Mongolia of which it is the national language. After using alphabets: traditional, Chinese, Tibetan and Latin, today Mongol under Soviet influence is written with the Cyrillic alphabet. There are a number of related dialects, including Buryat and Kalmyk. This language, like Turkish, Korean and Japanese, is part of Altaic languages family.
Mongolian and Mongolics languages in general are spoken by descendants of Mongolians who created a great empire in the 13th-14th century. Originally these nomads lived in the north of present-day Mongolia and dispersed in the largest empire that existed. Their close neighbors spoke Turkish, Tungus, Chinese and Tibetan. Tungus, Turkish and Mongolian are three languages which for a thousand years have been so in contact, that these three languages share an important corpus. If we know the existence of para-Mongolic languages (related to the Mongols) dating from the protohistory, we do not know how to analyze them, because of a decipherment, actually still not possible.
The central area of the Mongolic languages includes the current territories of Inner Mongolia (Chinese) and Outer Mongolia (present-day Mongolia). Mongolian (except para-Mongol), is a family of a dozen related languages, from the same Protolangue (proto-Mongolian). This proto-Mongolian must be not far the language of the historical Mongols (Middle Mongolian). The dialectal divesity will start at this time. the Proto-Mongol would have given four branches: On the one hand the Dahur, on the other hand the Mughal; and for the other two branches (Khamnigan, Buryat, Mongol, Ordos, and Oirat) and K(okonor, Shira Yughur, Mongghul, Minhe, Bonan, and Dong-Xiang).
Since the time of the Mongol Empire, the literary language of the Mongol princes, is written with a Semitic script, adopted by the Uighurs of East Turkestan. The 1st forms are close to Middle Mongolian, in later texts the forms are close to modern dialects. The oirat was introduced as a written language for its speakers in 1648, but the written Mongolian language remained used by all speakers. This Mongolian literary, is still used in Inner Mongolia, but since 1940, it is replaced in Mongolia by new literary languages, written in Latin or Cyrillic alphabets.
Mongolia is 85% Khalkhas and its capital Ulan Bator brings together ⅓ of the population of the country. The last nomads of Mongolia, sheltered under their traditional yurts and dressed in their colorful costumes, continue a life of tradition, transmitted from generation to generation.
The Mongolian name does not appear until the 11th century, when a tribe carrying it tries to organize a state in eastern Mongolia. Temudjin (Genghis Khan) gave it a singular scope, his successors completing "the conquest of the world". Let Genghis Khan carry my little poem from the Amur River to the Volga!
Burial areas of Mongolian populations are found in Afghanistan, in the Caspian Sea region (Russia), and in some parts of Central Asia (Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan).