Turkish (Anatolian),is the official language of Turkey, for 100 million speakers. A Turkish poem to dream you, the evenings of starry nights on the Bosphorus. Turkish is a language of the Oghuz language family which besides Turkey is spoken in many countries. It is a modern form of osmanli, a dialect which prevailed at the Ottomans court as unified literary language, and which has received a large number of borrowings from Arabic and Persian. After having used, characters called runiforms, ouigours characters, then arabs, the Turk has opted for a modified Latin alphabet.
Turkish literature begins first, in Mongolia, with the inscriptions of the Orkhon, in the 8th century, then in Turkestan (Tourfan manuscripts). The first Turkish Islamic texts appear in the 11th century, with the Katadgu Bilig by Yusuf Has Hacib. It is not until the 12th century, that develop in the Anatolia conquered by the Seljuks, a particular Turkish literature, which prefigures the Ottoman literature. The first preserved works date from 13-14th and are religious poems like those of Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi, founder of the whirling dervishes, and Yunus Emre. In the 14th century the Azeri dialect become established in the classical literature. The 15th century is the golden age of Jaghatai literature, with the poet Ali Sir Nevai. In the 16th century the classical Ottoman letters flourish with the two great Turkish lyric poets Baki and Fuzuli, the popular literature see the birth of Koroglu, a poet who became a legendary figure. In the 17th century, the lyric poetry continue its development with Nef'i. Popular poetry is represented by Karacaoglan and Gevheri, the fine poet Nedim translates Persian and Arabic. In the 19th century, the poets Ziya Pasa, Abdulhak Hamid Tarhan, Muallim Naci and especially Namik Kemal, ask for the empire and the letters reform. The new literature succeed to the Tanzimat, the turk poet Tevfik Fikret and others begin to write more authentically some modern Turkish poems. The poet Ahmet Hasim is inspired by the French symbolism, the poet Yahya Kemal Beyatli founds the neoclassicism. After 1928 and the adoption of the Latin alphabet, the Turkish literature become more and more confused with the everyday conversation. Literature is democratized: in poetry with Turkish poets Orhan Seyfi Orhon, Yusuf Ziya Ortac and Faruk Nafiz Camlibel, while Nazim Hikmet with his poems upsets his epoch. In the 40s, the poets Orhan Veli Kanik, Oktay Rifat and Melih Cevdet Anday use of new forms, Necip Fazil Kisakurek is more mystical, Ahmet Muhip Dranas more esthete. After the Second World War the great names of the poetry are Cahit Sitki Taranci, Behcet Necatigil and Necati Cumali, while the great representative of the Turkish popular poetry is Asik Veysel. After 1965 and a political liberalization, Attila Ilhan, Edip Cansever, Oguzcan and Akin argue their talents. Turkey has only 3% of its territory in Europe, the rest on the other side of the Bosphorus, is in Asia. Originally the Turks are tribes coming from Central Asia which progressively have settled in Anatolia, a land rich of millenary histories. Hittites, Hourrites, to mention only those two great civilizations that were found there.