Sorani love poem
Aksi eto le awena da
Bashtrin sheeiri mina
Belam xeraka chunki ghaip dabe
Bo axrin jarma "Etom xosh dewe"
→ French poem ←
The Sorani language
My love poem (Helbesta hezkirina) translated into Sorani language: (other names or dialects : Central Kurdish, Mukri, Sine'i, Pizhdar, Kordi, Korkora, Wawa, Bingird, Garmiyani, Kurdy, Silemani, Mokri, Southern Jafi, Arbili, Kerkuki, Kurdi, Sineyi, Pijdari, Rewandiz, Warmawa, Hewleri, Sina'i, Xoshnaw, Suleimani, Sanandaji, autonym: زمانێ سۆرانی (Zimanê Soranî)), spoken by women who live in Iraq and Iran, because I want them to know that certain words are borderless!
Sorani is a central Kurdish language of the Western Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian group of the Indo-European family, official in Iraq but not in Iran; in these two countries there are around 9 million speakers who speak it.
Kurmanji and Sorani which are two dialects of the same language, are not mutually intelligible, they differ both in vocabulary and structure. In principle Sorani uses the Arabic alphabet and Kurmanji uses Latin letters.
Modern Literary Kurdish is represented by Kurmanji, which is the language of the majority of Kurds in Turkey, Syria, Armenia and Azerbaijan, in the region called Northern Kurdistan, with between 15 and 17 million speakers, and by Sorani, the language of the Kurds of Iraq and Iran, from the region called Southern Kurdistan.
Sorani, which has been largely influenced by Persian, a dominant language and culture in the region, has had a literary activity for around fifty years. Kurmanji, meanwhile, is not yet standardized.
The entire period of the Ayyubid empire of Saladin, which goes from the 12th century, until the Turkish-Mongol invasions of the 13th century, will see the emergence of a literature written in the Kurdish language.
From the 15th to the 18th century, the Kurdish principalities, which although dependent on the Ottoman world, kept a great deal of autonomy, and this period was that of a rich scientific and artistic creation, whether musical or literary. Let us quote the Kurdish poet Melayé Djaziri. The most famous scholars who will follow are Chéref Khan, Nabi, Nefi, and the great poet Ehmedê Khani.
Sorani mainly spread in the 18th century, thanks to a strong expansion of the community, and to princes whose power increased. Sorani literature was born with a number of poets, and it spread widely beyond borders.
The history of the Kurds
The Kurds claim to be Medes ... In -612 the Medes who conquered Assyria, dominate all of central Anatolia and Iran, until the time of Alexander the Great.
And then it is the time of the Muslim invasions; the Kurds will resist to these invasions for a century.
From the 9th century, taking advantage of the weakening of the power of the caliphs, they created the four principalities of Medie, which brought together the Chaddadites, the Hassanwahids, the Banou Annaz, and the Merwanids.
The successive invasions of the peoples of the Central Asia steppes, the Seljuk Turks, will get their hands on these principalities, and will give them the name of Kurdistan.
After the disappearance of the last Seljuk, in the 12th century, Saladin, a Kurd, founded the Kurdish dynasty of the Ayyubids which reigns over a Muslim world comprising Kurdistan, Syria, Egypt and Yemen.
It was not until the second half of the 15th century that the Kurds, united by their language, although divided into principalities, will regain awareness, at least through the writings of the literati, of their belonging to the same people.
In the 15th century, caught between the rivalries between the Ottomans and the Persians, the Kurds chose to ally with the Ottomans, who in exchange guaranteed them a wide recognition. The victory of their Ottoman allies will ensure them three centuries of peace and broad autonomy.
In the 19th century, the Kurds will begin to oppose the Ottoman Empire, through wars of independence, because the latter begins to oppose their autonomy, but their fragmentation into principalities will facilitate their annexation.
1918 will divide Kurdistan into several states, Iraqi, Iranian, Syrian and Turkish, depriving the Kurds at the same time of a real cultural autonomy, each of these nations, projecting to become a uniform country.